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Delve into the Mystery of the Nazca Lines and Paracas Culture

Research Blog

Vilcabamba: The Last And Lost City Of The Inca

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Vilcabamba (in hispanicized spelling), Willkapampa (Aymara and Quechua) or Espíritu Pampa was a city founded by Manco Inca in 1539 and was the last refuge of the Inca Empire until it fell to the Spaniards in 1572, signaling the end of Inca resistance to Spanish rule. It is located on the Chontabamba River, a tributary of the Urubamba River.

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Few visitors ever see this site, due to conditions such as seen in the above photo. Getting there from Cusco takes at least an entire day, and getting out is just as time consuming...

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Once through several hours of slippery jungle roads, then you have to hike to the site. On this day, we were the only 4 people there, and I had sacred Vilcabamba to myself for half an hour...

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The lost city of Vilcabamba features in the educational computer game series The Amazon Trail, the Tomb Raider videogame and its remake Tomb Raider: Anniversary, and the books Evil Star and Necropolis by British thriller author Anthony Horowitz. 

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The first outsiders in modern times to rediscover the remote forest site that has since come to be identified with Old Vilcabamba (Vilcabamba la Vieja) were three Cuzqueños: Manuel Ugarte, Manuel López Torres, and Juan Cancio Saavedra, in 1892. In 1911, Hiram Bingham with his book Lost City of the Incas brought to public attention the site of the ruins of the city at the remote forest site then called Espíritu Pampa.

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Here I am pointing to a repair done to this doorway. Notice that the area around it is made of massive and quite finely shaped stones. This could mean that the same megalithic culture that built parts of Cusco prior to the Inca were also here...

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And farther down an Inca trail I stumbled across this massive shaped stone. It could also be the work of the ancient pre-Inca megalithic builders referred to in legends as the Pirhua or Viracochan...lost ancient technology?

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And many other curious stones are also found in the immediate area. Could they have been shaped by the Inca simple bronze tools? Or the work of the mysterious Pirhua or Viracochan?

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Getting out of Vilcabamba was as tough as getting in! None of our tours go to Vilcabamba for that reason...

We still have spaces left for our tour of Peru and Bolivia September 15 to October 2, 2014...registration and full payment due no later than August 15:

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Full details of the tour HERE

I have written several books about the Inca and pre-Inca, and they are available through Barnes and Noble as well as Amazon:

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Lost Ancient Technology In Peru: The Obvious Evidence

The above photo is simply one example of many artifacts found in Peru, and especially the Cusco area which most tour guides and academics either can’t explain, or in some cases refuse to address. And here we find another similar circular hole. Both are cut into very hard andesite stone, and how could they have been made by the Inca or other local culture that did not have tube drills, or even iron? In the above photo you can see that in this Inca ... continue reading

Great Pyramid Of Giza: Why Does It Have 8 Sides? Not 4?

One very unusual feature of the Great Pyramid is a concavity of the core that makes the monument an eight-sided figure, rather than four-sided like every other Egyptian pyramid. That is to say, that its four sides are hollowed in or indented along their central lines, from base to peak. This concavity divides each of the apparent four sides in half, creating a very special and unusual eight-sided pyramid; and it is executed to such an extraordinary degre... continue reading

Cranial Deformation And Elongated Skulls: A Global Phenomenon

Quite possibly, the most famous and enigmatic human skulls on the planet are from the Paracas and Nazca area of Peru south of Lima. They have been interpreted as being alien, annunaki, nephilim and human hybrids, but only via now ongoing DNA testing will we know for sure. Initial tests of the Paracas indicate aberrations from the normal pattern of Native American genetic make up, and the presence of natural dark red hair. Further testing will be conducte... continue reading

Enigmatic Easter Island: Guide For Inquisitive Minds

Estimated dates of initial settlement of Easter Island (Native name Rapa Nui) have ranged from 300 to 1200 AD, approximately coinciding with the arrival of the first settlers in Hawaii. Rectifications in radiocarbon dating have changed almost all of the previously posited early settlement dates in Polynesia. Rapa Nui has more recently been considered to have been settled in the narrower range of 700 to 1100 AD. However, few if any archaeologists, especial... continue reading

Lost Ancient High Technology In The Highlands Of Peru? Wari

The Wari Ruins are located near Quinua, in the Huanta Province, Ayacucho Region, Peru at an altitude 2770 m above sea level. These ruins are all that is left of Wari, the capital city of the Wari (hispanicized Huari). This capital city covers some 16 square kilometers, and the architecture is aligned to conform to the local topography. The ruins appear to be in almost the same condition as they were during the days of the powerful Wari empire, from about ... continue reading

A Trip To The Paracas History Museum In Peru

A trip to the Paracas History Museum begins with Sr. Juan Navarro giving a full explanation of the 5 distinct cultures that lived in the area in pre-hispanic times: Paracas, Nazca, Huari, Chincha and Inca… Most visitors take special interest in the Elongated Skulls of the Paracas culture, and thus we take examples out of the cases for examination… These are the famous “cone head” skulls of Paracas known the world over. Some have ... continue reading

Beyond Nazca: The Enigmatic Palpa Lines And Geoglyphs Of Peru

Though not as famous as the Nazca Lines and Geoglyphs, those at nearby Palpa are perhaps equally intriguing. Made by the Paracas culture possibly as much as 1000 years prior to the Nazca Lines, there are more than 1600 Palpa Lines and Geoglyphs. Unlike the Nazca works, which cover hundreds of square miles of the flat Nazca Plain to the southwest, the Palpa figures and lines tend to be on the tops of ridges or on the sides of hills. In fact, many of the ... continue reading

Megalithic Site Called Qenqo Near Cusco Peru

Q’inqu (Quechua for “zig-zag”, hispanicized spellings Ccenco, Quenco, also Kenko, Qenko, Q’enko, Qenqo) is an archaeological site above the Sacred Valley of Peru located in the Cusco Region, Cusco Province, Cusco District, about 6 km north east of Cusco. Claimed by most academics to be an Inca site, none can explain why or how almost the entire surface of this massive outcrop was sculpted in the past. Inside the massive stone outc... continue reading

Puma Punku: Further Investigations Of The Enigma In Bolivia

Pumapunku or Puma Punku (Aymara and Quechua puma cougar, puma, punku door, hispanicized Puma Puncu) is part of a large temple complex or monument group that is part of the Tiwanaku Site near Tiwanaku, Bolivia. The enduring question is: who shaped these andesite stones and when? The Tiwanaku culture whom most academics believe were the first society to live there had only bronze age technology, and thus could not have been responsible. And how does one e... continue reading

Megalithic Works In Cusco Peru Made Long Before The Inca Existed

Archaeological Remains of Hatunrumiyoc. It is a wall constructed with the stone type “green diorite” (right wall) and is located outside the palace attributed to Inca Roca. The wall is admirable due to its polygonal architecture, whose front comprises almost the entire Hatunrumiyoc Street. Hatunrumiyoc is known because it contains the famous “twelve-angle stone”. The palace was located at the corner of Hatunrumiyoc and Herrajes st... continue reading

Huayna Pic’chu: The Daunting Trek To The Top…

Huayna Picchu, Wayna Picchu (hispanicized spellings) or Wayna Pikchu (Quechua wayna young, young man, pikchu pyramid; mountain or prominence with a broad base which ends in sharp peaks, “young peak”) is a mountain in Peru around which the Urubamba River bends. It is located in the Cusco Region, Urubamba Province, Machupicchu District.  It rises over Machu Picchu, the so-called lost city of the Incas, and divides it into sections. The Incas bui... continue reading
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