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Explore Machu Picchu and the Sacred Valley of the Inca

Walk the Inca Trail and Explore Ancient Cities

Tour Ancient Peru, Nazca, and Easter Island w/ Brien & Dr. Robert Schoch in November

Delve into the Mystery of the Nazca Lines and Paracas Culture

Research Blog

Beyond Nazca: The Enigmatic Palpa Lines And Geoglyphs Of Peru

Palpa Lines  Peru Though not as famous as the Nazca Lines and Geoglyphs, those at nearby Palpa are perhaps equally intriguing. Made by the Paracas culture possibly as much as 1000 years prior to the Nazca Lines, there are more than 1600 Palpa Lines and Geoglyphs.


Unlike the Nazca works, which cover hundreds of square miles of the flat Nazca Plain to the southwest, the Palpa figures and lines tend to be on the tops of ridges or on the sides of hills.


In fact, many of the so called "runways" are in the Palpa area, not Nazca...


The above is believed to have been a complex solar calendar created by the Paracas culture, who lived in the area hundreds of years before the Nazca people.


And this complex shape, called the Sun Star is most likely the work of the ancient, elongated skull Paracas people, who died out about 2000 years ago, most likely the result of the intrusion by the more war like Nazca...


Watch one of my Palpa videos HERE

You have the chance to come and see the Palpa works with us on the following 2 tours in the fall of 2014:


Complete details HERE


Full itinerary HERE

Also, my book about Palpa and Nazca below covers all of the theories as to who made them, when, and why...

Nazca cover320 (2)

Megalithic Site Called Qenqo Near Cusco Peru

Q’inqu (Quechua for “zig-zag”, hispanicized spellings Ccenco, Quenco, also Kenko, Qenko, Q’enko, Qenqo) is an archaeological site above the Sacred Valley of Peru located in the Cusco Region, Cusco Province, Cusco District, about 6 km north east of Cusco. Claimed by most academics to be an Inca site, none can explain why or how almost the entire surface of this massive outcrop was sculpted in the past. Inside the massive stone outc... continue reading

Puma Punku: Further Investigations Of The Enigma In Bolivia

Pumapunku or Puma Punku (Aymara and Quechua puma cougar, puma, punku door, hispanicized Puma Puncu) is part of a large temple complex or monument group that is part of the Tiwanaku Site near Tiwanaku, Bolivia. The enduring question is: who shaped these andesite stones and when? The Tiwanaku culture whom most academics believe were the first society to live there had only bronze age technology, and thus could not have been responsible. And how does one e... continue reading

Megalithic Works In Cusco Peru Made Long Before The Inca Existed

Archaeological Remains of Hatunrumiyoc. It is a wall constructed with the stone type “green diorite” (right wall) and is located outside the palace attributed to Inca Roca. The wall is admirable due to its polygonal architecture, whose front comprises almost the entire Hatunrumiyoc Street. Hatunrumiyoc is known because it contains the famous “twelve-angle stone”. The palace was located at the corner of Hatunrumiyoc and Herrajes st... continue reading

Huayna Pic’chu: The Daunting Trek To The Top…

Huayna Picchu, Wayna Picchu (hispanicized spellings) or Wayna Pikchu (Quechua wayna young, young man, pikchu pyramid; mountain or prominence with a broad base which ends in sharp peaks, “young peak”) is a mountain in Peru around which the Urubamba River bends. It is located in the Cusco Region, Urubamba Province, Machupicchu District.  It rises over Machu Picchu, the so-called lost city of the Incas, and divides it into sections. The Incas bui... continue reading

The Unexplained Megalithic Site Called Zone X Near Cusco Peru

Above the city of Cusco in Peru is an ancient site which few tourists, or even local people ever see…named Zone X by local expert Jesus Gammara… Claimed to be an Inca site by conventional academics, it has many strangely cut, and in some cases polished hard stone surfaces… Some claim that the area was an Inca stone quarry, but none can explain why such irregular blocks were, or could have been removed with Inca tools, which consisted o... continue reading

Vilcashuaman: Ancient City Of The Inca, First Established By Megalithic People

Vilcashuamán (Inca Quechua: Willkawaman, “sacred hawk”) is the capital of Vilcas Huamán Province, Peru. It is located at an altitude of 3,490 m on the eastern slopes of the Andes and here we find an ancient archaeological site. Vilcashuamán was an Inca administrative center, established after the Inca conquered the Chancas and the Pocras. According to chroniclers, Vilcashuamán was home to 40,000 people. The city was located around a large pla... continue reading

Lost Inca City Of Vilcabamba: Megalithic Wonder

The location of Vilcabamba was forgotten. The first outsiders in modern times to rediscover the remote forest site that has since come to be identified with Old Vilcabamba (Vilcabamba la Vieja) were three Cuzqueños: Manuel Ugarte, Manuel López Torres, and Juan Cancio Saavedra, in 1892. The smaller rough work is that of the Inca aside a megalithic core When the Inca ruler Manco Inca and his large army failed to overthrow the Spanish invaders in A.D. 1536, ... continue reading

Kuelap Peru: Ancient Fortress Of The Cloud Warriors

The fortress of Kuelap or Cuélap (Chachapoyas, Amazonas, Perú), associated with the Chachapoyas culture, consists of massive exterior stone walls containing more than four hundred buildings. The structure, situated on a ridge overlooking the Utcubamba Valley in northern Peru, is roughly 600 meters in length and 110 meters in width. This prime example of Chachapoyan architecture, Kuelap, remained ignored by the outside world until 1843, when Juan Crisósto... continue reading

Ancient Temples Of Chavin De Huantar In Peru

Chavín de Huántar is an archaeological site containing ruins and artifacts constructed beginning at least by 1200 BC and occupied by later cultures until around 400-500 BC by the Chavín, a major pre-Inca culture. The site is located in the Ancash Region of Peru, 250 kilometers (160 mi) north of Lima, at an elevation of 3,180 meters (10,430 ft), east of the Cordillera Blanca at the start of the Conchucos Valley. Occupation at Chavín de Huántar has been ca... continue reading

Chan Chan: Enormous Ancient Adobe City In Peru

The largest Pre-Columbian city in South America, Chan Chan is an archaeological site in the Peruvian region of La Libertad, five km west of Trujillo. Chan Chan covers 20 km² and had a dense urban center of 6 km², and was constructed by the Chimor (the kingdom of the Chimú), a late intermediate period civilization which grew out of the remnants of the Moche civilization. Chan Chan is the largest adobe city in the world and was built around AD 850. It last... continue reading

Cahuachi Peru: Largest Adobe Ceremonial Site In The World

Cahuachi, in Peru, was a major ceremonial center of the Nazca culture, based from 1 AD to about 500 AD in the coastal area of the Central Andes. It overlooked some of the Nazca lines. The Italian archaeologist Giuseppe Orefici has been excavating at the site for the past few decades. The site contains over 40 mounds topped with adobe structures. The huge architectural complex covers at least 28 square kilometers. However, most scolars do not take into ac... continue reading
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